Pharaoh Ahmose I runs out the Hyksos
Egypt had been invaded by the Hyksos who took over the Egyptian lands and enslaved everyone. After a 30 year war, Ahmose I, drove them out. The kingdom belonged to the Princes of Thebes, not to the invading Hyksos. The original Egypt was divided into 2 kingdoms (per the decision of Geb the father god), called Upper and Lower Egypt. The two kingdoms were combined after King Menes (Scorpion) united the kingdoms. It appears to me, that there were black pharaohs and white pharaohs and possibly Dravidian pharaohs (from India). If you look at the statues of the kings, you can draw your own conclusions. Perhaps these two groups interbred to make one king line or one group of kings took over the united throne.
According to wikipedia:
The conflict between the local kings of Thebes and the Hyksos king Apepi had started during the reign of Seqenenre Tao and would be concluded, after almost 30 years of intermittent conflict and war, under the reign of Ahmose I. Seqenenre Tao was possibly killed in a battle against the Hyksos, as his much-wounded mummy gruesomely suggests, and his successor Kamose (likely Ahmose's elder brother) is known to have attacked and raided the lands around the Hyksos capital, Avaris (modern Tell el-Dab'a). Kamose evidently had a short reign, as his highest attested regnal year is year 3, and was succeeded by Ahmose I. Apepi may have died near the same time. The two royal names—Awoserre and Aqenienre—known for Apepi attested in the historical record were for the same Hyksos king that were used by Ahmose's opponent at different times during the latter king's reign.This event is the real Exodus spoken about in the bible. The Tempest Stele also describes incredible storms that came through Egypt at the same time:
The Tempest Stele (alt. Storm Stele) was erected by Ahmose I early in the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, circa 1550 BCE. The stele describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king.Ahmose I was part of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt which included very famous pharaohs such as Akhenaten, Thutmose, and Hatshepsut. According to wikipedia, the Hyksos dynasty didn't last too long and came out of ancient Babylon known as the fertile crescent and they appeared to have only five kings:
The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.The following excerpt from wikipedia describes the Hyksos invaders:
The Hyksos or Hycsos (pron.: //; Egyptian heqa khasewet, "foreign rulers"; Greek Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a mixed people from West Asia who took over the eastern Nile Delta, ending the thirteenth dynasty, and initiating the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.
The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt c.1800 BC, during the eleventh dynasty, and began their climb to power in the thirteenth dynasty, coming out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Delta. By the fifteenth dynasty, they ruled Lower Egypt, and at the end of the seventeenth dynasty, they were expelled (c.1560 BC).
The Hyksos practiced horse burials, and their chief deity became the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth, whom they identified with their native storm god. Although most Hyksos names seem Semitic, the Hyksos also included Hurrians, who, while speaking an isolated language, were under the rule and influence of Indo-Europeans.
The Hyksos brought several technical improvements to Egypt, as well as cultural impulses such as new musical instruments and foreign loan words. The changes affected techniques from bronze working and pottery to weaving, and new breeds of animals and new crops were introduced. In warfare, they introduced the horse and chariot, the compound bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques.
Modern scholarship usually[who?] assumes that the Hyksos were likely Semites who came from the Levant. Kamose, the last king of the Theban 17th Dynasty, refers to Apophis as a "Chieftain of Retjenu (i.e., Canaan)" in a stela that implies a Semitic Canaanite background for this Hyksos king: this is the strongest evidence for a Canaanite background for the Hyksos. Khyan's name "has generally been interpreted as Amorite "Hayanu" (reading h-ya-a-n) which the Egyptian form represents perfectly, and this is in all likelihood the correct interpretation." Kim Ryholt furthermore observes the name Hayanu is recorded in the Assyrian king-lists for a "remote ancestor" of Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1813 BC) of Assyria, which suggests that it had been used for centuries prior to Khyan's own reign.
According to wikipedia the Hyksos were kicked out of Egypt and pushed into Canaan:
Ahmose I, who is regarded as the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty may have been on the Theban throne for some time before he resumed the war against the Hyksos.
The details of his military campaigns are taken from the account on the walls of the tomb of another Ahmose, a soldier from El-Kab, a town in southern Upper Egypt, whose father had served under Seqenenra Tao II, and whose family had long been nomarchs of the districts. It seems, that several campaigns against the stronghold at Avaris were needed before the Hyksos were finally dislodged and driven from Lower Egypt. When this occurred is not known with certainty. Some authorities[who?] place the expulsion as early as Ahmose's fourth year, while Donald Redford, whose chronological structure has been adopted here, places it as late as the king's fifteenth year. The Ahmose who left the inscription states that he followed on foot as his King Ahmose rode to war in his chariot (the first mention of the use of the horse and chariot by the Egyptians); in the fighting around Avaris he captured prisoners and carried off several hands (as proof of slain enemies), which when reported to the royal herald resulted in his being awarded the "Gold of Valor" on three separate occasions. The actual fall of Avaris is only briefly mentioned:
- "Then Avaris was despoiled. Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three women, a total of four persons. Then his majesty gave them to me to be slaves."
After the fall of Avaris, the fleeing Hyksos were pursued by the Egyptian army across northern Sinai and into southern Canaan. Here, in the Negev desert between Rafah and Gaza, the fortified town of Sharuhen was reduced after, according to the soldier from El-Kab, a long three-year siege operation. How soon after the sack of Avaris this Asiatic campaign took place is uncertain. One can reasonably conclude that the thrust into southern Canaan probably followed the Hyksos’ eviction from Avaris fairly closely, but, given a period of protracted struggle before Avaris fell and possibly more than one season of campaigning before the Hyksos were shut up in Sharuhen, the chronological sequence must remain uncertain
I find it interesting that the mummies were desecrated during the recent Egyptian riots. The heads of two mummies were ripped off (which ones were they?).
by Rita Jean Moran (www.thelibrarykids.com)